Belgrade is the capital and the largest city of Serbia and former Yugoslavia. It is one of the oldest cities in Europe. The first settlements in the Belgrade area date from prehistoric Vinca, 4,800 years BC. Belgrade itself was founded by the Celts in the 3rd century BC. before becoming the Roman settlement of Singidunum.
The Slavic name “Beligrad” (slov. Bjelgrad) was first recorded in 878 years, which included the impression to be the former fortress. Belgrade has been the capital of Serbia since 1405 and was the capital of various South Slavic states from the 1918th until 2003, as well as Serbia and Montenegro since 2003 until 2006.
The city lies at the confluence of the Sava and the Danube rivers in central Serbia where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkan Peninsula. The population of Belgrade in 2019 is around 2 million people . It is the largest city in the former Yugoslavia and the fourth most populous in Southeastern Europe, after Istanbul, Athens and Bucharest.
Belgrade has the status of a separate territorial unit in Serbia, with its local government. Its territory is divided into 17 urban municipalities, each of which has its local government. Belgrade occupies 3.6% of the territory of the Republic of Serbia, and is home to 21% of the citizens of that part of Serbia. Belgrade is also the economic center of Serbia and the center of Serbian culture, education and science.
Belgrade is situated 116.75 meters above sea level, at the coordinates 44 ° 49’14 “North and 20 ° 27’44” east. The historical core of Belgrade (today’s Belgrade Fortress) located on the right bank of the river. As New Belgrade and Zemun are on the left bank of the Sava river. The city lies at the confluence of the Danube and Sava rivers. Urban area of the city is 359.92 square kilometers. Belgrade is the capital of Western and Eastern European cultures.
In the very center of Belgrade, under the present palace Albania, were found during its construction in 1938. Skeletons of the Neanderthal, who was killed in a battle with mammoth whose skeleton was found nearby, suggesting the population of today’s Belgrade area in prehistoric times. Later in the Balkans, about 7,000 years ago Vinca culture was developed so its remains can be found in the vicinity of Belgrade in the eponymous village, on which the whole culture is named. Inhabited in the third century, p. n. e. by the Celts, the area soon passed into the hands of the Romans and became a settlement of Singidunum. During the reign of the Emperor Diocletian, during the persecution of Christians in Singidunum mentioned first Christian martyr. One of the oldest known by the name of Christian victims in this city are Ermil and Stratonicus. The division of the Roman Empire remains under the control of the Byzantine Empire.
Singidunum has had many invaders, such as the Huns, Sarmatians, Ostrogoths and Avars – before the arrival of the Slavs around 630 AD. The first records of the Slovenian name Belgrade dates back to 878 AD (Slovene form Bjelgrad), during the rule of the First Bulgarian Empire, referring to the impression fortress made of white stone when viewed from the river and the Pannonian Plain. The city remained the subject of disputes between Byzantium, Hungary and Bulgaria over the next four centuries.
The city finally fell under the authority of the Serbs as part of Srem 1284. The first Serbian king who ruled Belgrade was Stefan Dragutin (1276-1282), ruler of the Kingdom of Lower Srem (Mačve), which was a gift from his father in law, the Hungarian King Ladislaus IV.  After heavy losses in the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 the empire began to crumble, and its southern parts of the rapidly evolving into the hands of the Ottoman Turks. However, the north has long resisted. Serbian despot Stefan Lazarevic received Belgrade from Hungarian and Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg, having become his vassal. In 1405 Stefan Lazarevic proclaimed Belgrade as their capital. In the future, Belgrade was a great climb. Re-established the old city walls, along with castles, fortresses and churches and restored, which has helped the city to withstand the onslaughts of the Turks 70 years.
At this time, Belgrade became a safe haven for many Balkan peoples fleeing from Ottoman authorities. It is believed that the population at this time and reaching 40,000-50,000. However Belgrade came under the protection of Hungarian kings. The Turks wanted to conquer Belgrade because it was an obstacle to further progress towards central Europe. They attacked the 1456th when it played the famous Siege of Belgrade, where the Christian army led Sibinjanin Janka successfully defended the city from Turkish attacks.
According to the census of 2011., Belgrade has 1,659,440 inhabitants. By ethnic group, residents of Belgrade declared themselves as Serbs (1,505,448), Yugoslavs (8061), Montenegrins (9902), Roma (27,325), Croats (7752), Macedonians (6,970) and Muslim (3996). Today in 2019 Belgrade is home to more then 2 million people and about 1.5 million tourist visit every year.
Although there are several religious communities in Belgrade, the circuit is relatively homogeneous. The Orthodox community is by far the largest with 1,429,170 believers. Also there are 20,366 Muslims and 16,305 Catholics. There was a large Jewish community, but following the Nazi occupation 1941st large emigration of Jews to Israel, the number dropped to 415 in Belgrade also has a 3,796 Protestants.
In addition to the certificate of Belgrade, the city is also home to a large number of Serbs from the territory of the whole of the former Yugoslavia, who came to the city was looking for a better life or to escape from war and ethnic cleansing. Unofficially, taking into account the large number of Serbian refugees from Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and the expelled persons from Kosovo, students, then the people listed in the places of their permanent residence, the population of Belgrade potentially exceed $ 2 million. Belgrade also live and many other nationalities and ethnicities of the former Yugoslavia which is largely a product of his former status as the capital city of multiethnic Yugoslavia.
Belgrade is the most economically developed part of Serbia. More than 30% of GDP in Serbia comes from Belgrade, which gives more than 30% of the labor force in Serbia. During the nineties of the 20th century, the city was under UN sanctions, as well as the entire former Yugoslavia. The hyperinflation of the Yugoslav dinar was also decimated the economy of the city.
The economy of the city is recovering rapidly growing since 2000., After the fall of Slobodan Milosevic and the UN sanctions. The headquarters of the National Bank of Serbia in Belgrade. The main company in Belgrade, among others: Jat Airways, Telekom Serbia, Telenor Serbia, Delta Holding, and many others.
With 6,924 companies, Belgrade, with high growth and one of the major IT centers in this part of Europe. One of Microsoft’s development center is located in Belgrade, and at the time of establishment was the fifth center of its kind in the world. Many international companies choose Belgrade as a regional or European center, such as Asus, Intel, Dell, NCR Corporation, Cisco Systems, SAP AG, Acer, Imtel Computers, Hewlett-Packard, Huawei, Microsoft, etc..
Belgrade hosts many cultural events, including FEST (International Film Festival), BITEF (Belgrade International Theatre Festival), BELEF (Belgrade Summer Festival), BEMUS (Belgrade Music Festival), Belgrade Book Fair, and the Belgrade Beer Festival. Nobel Prize winner Ivo Andric wrote his most famous works, “The Bridge on the Drina” and “The Damned Yard” in Prizren Street in Belgrade. Other prominent Serbian writers who lived and worked in Belgrade Branislav Nušić Milos Crnjanski, Borislav Pekić, Milorad Pavic, Mesa Selimovic and others.
The most famous museum in Belgrade is the National Museum, founded in 1844. Year. It contains a collection of more than 400,000 exhibition materials, including many foreign masterpieces. Known Miroslav Gospel is in this museum.
The military museum is especially popular with foreign tourists, mostly because the parts of the “invisible” (stealth) aircraft F-117 which was the Yugoslav air defenses shot down during the NATO bombing in 1999. The museum is located more than 25,000 other exhibit items, some of which date back to the Roman period.
A similar museum is the Museum of Yugoslav Aviation, which has more than 200 aircraft, of which 50 permanent exhibition. Several aircraft in the museum are the only “survivor” specimens of this type, such as. Fiat G.50. Museum exhibits and some parts of fallen American and NATO aircraft.
The Ethnographic Museum, established in 1901, contains more than 150,000 items of rural and urban culture of the Balkans, namely the countries of the former Yugoslavia.
Museum of Contemporary Art has a collection of about 8,540 works of art in Yugoslavia since 1900. Nikola Tesla Museum, founded in 1952., The stored personal items of Nikola Tesla, the scientist after whom the Tesla unit was named. Museum houses around 160,000 original documents and around 5,700 other items.
Another of the major Belgrade museums is the Museum of Vuk and Dositeja, which contains exhibits about the life, work and legacy of Vuk Stefanovic Karadzic and Dositeja Obradovic, reformer of the Serbian literary language from the 19th century who were also at the same time and the first Serbian ministers of education.
In Belgrade there is a Museum of African Art founded in the time of socialist solidarity with the underdeveloped nations of the Third World.
Since the year 2000 along with the renewal of diplomatic relations between Serbia with Western Europe and America in Belgrade was observed return of foreign tourists absent since the wars of the nineties. Historical parts, landmark buildings of Belgrade and the fortress are the city’s largest tourist attraction. These include the bohemian quarter, Nikola Tesla museum, National Museum, the nearby National Theatre, Zemun, Nikola Pasic Square, Milos quarters, Princess Ljubica, Terazije, Studentski trg, Kalemegdan fortress, Knez Mihailova st, the National Assembly, the Temple of Saint Sava, and the Old Palace.
In addition there are many parks, monuments, museums, cafés, restaurants and shops and on both sides of the river basin.
Josip Broz Tito’s mausoleum called House of Flowers, parks, Ada Ciganlia man made lake, Topčider and Košutnjak that are very popular. In recent years the number of young visitors has grown , especially those from ex Yugoslavia: Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina who enjoy the nightlife of the city. Belgrade was voted number 1 city to party at in the year 2012